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智慧安防之生物识别门禁系统

来源:http://www.wfzhongtebao.com  点击次数:    发布时间:2018-09-07
近几年,随着生物特征识别技术的不断发展成熟,生物特征识别技术在门禁系统中的应用逐渐变成主流。生物特征识别门禁系统是以人的生物特征为识别条件的门禁系统,主要包括对人脸识别、指纹识别、虹膜识别、掌纹识别、指静脉识别、声纹识别等。总体来说,生物识别门禁的发展呈螺旋上升趋势,目前在智慧安防、视频监控、楼宇对讲、智能社区、地铁保安、智慧银行等领域的应用极大的便捷了人们的生活,它似乎不在像从前那么高不可攀。
In recent years, with the development and maturity of biometrics technology, the application of biometrics technology in access control system has gradually become the mainstream. The entrance guard system based on biometrics is an entrance guard system under the condition of human biometrics. It mainly includes face recognition, fingerprint recognition, iris recognition, palmprint recognition, finger vein recognition, voiceprint recognition and so on. Overall, the development of biometric access control is spiraling upward, and its application in intelligent security, video surveillance, building intercom, smart community, subway security, smart bank and other fields has greatly facilitated people's life. It seems that it is not as high as before.
1.指纹识别门禁系统
1.Fingerprint identification access control system
指纹门禁系统的硬件主要由微处理器、指纹识别模块、液晶显示模块、键盘、时钟/日历芯片、电控锁和电源等组成。微处理器作为系统的上位机,控制整个系统。指纹识别模块主要完成指纹特征的采集、比对、存储、删除等功能。液晶显示器模块用于显示开门记录、实时时钟和操作提示等信息,和键盘?起组成人机界。
The hardware of fingerprint entrance guard system is mainly composed of microprocessor, fingerprint identification module, LCD display module, keyboard, clock/calendar chip, electronic lock and power supply. Microprocessor as the upper computer of the system controls the whole system. Fingerprint identification module mainly completes the acquisition, comparison, storage and deletion of fingerprint features. The LCD module is used to display information such as open door record, real-time clock and operation prompt, and the keyboard forms the man-machine interface.
指纹读取装置(采集器)采用光电技术或电容技术将指纹信息采集下来、然后进行特征提取并与已存储的特征信息比对,完成识别过程。这个过程全部在读取装置中完成,也可以是读取装置仅进行指纹采集,然后将其传送到后台设备(如PC)完成特征提取和识别。单独进行指纹采集的装置易于小型化,使用方便,系统识别速度也较快。进行指纹特征采集要求在操作时人的手指与采集器建立规定的关系.所以系统友好性稍差。
Fingerprint reading device (collector) uses photoelectric technology or capacitive technology to collect fingerprint information, then extract features and compare with the stored feature information to complete the identification process. This process is completed entirely in the reading device, or it can be read device only for fingerprint collection, and then transmitted to the background equipment (such as PC) to complete feature extraction and recognition. The device for fingerprint collection is easy to be miniaturized, easy to use and fast to identify. Fingerprint feature acquisition requires a specified relationship between the finger and the collector during operation, so the system is a little less friendly.
生物统计学表明:指纹具有很高的唯一性,人之间出现相同指纹的概率很低,因止安全性较高,但仍存在被仿制的风险。所以,出现了具有活体指纹采集功能的产品,主要是增加对温度,弹性、微血管的探测来确认采集指坟的真实性。安全要求的门禁系统,除指纹识别外,还应增加其它识别手段,如密码等来提高系统的安全性。
Biostatistics shows that fingerprints have high uniqueness, the probability of identical fingerprints between people is very low, so far higher security, but there is still a risk of being copied. Therefore, there are products with in vivo fingerprint collection function, mainly to increase the detection of temperature, elasticity, microvasculature to confirm the authenticity of the collection of fingerprints. In addition to fingerprint identification, other identification means, such as password, should be added to the security requirements of access control system to improve the security of the system.
2.掌纹识别门禁系统
2.Palmprint recognition access control system
掌纹所包含的信息丰富,利用掌纹的纹线特征、点特征、纹理特征、几何特征完全可以确定一个人的身份。掌纹识别技术的基础就是手掌几何学识别。手掌几何学识别是通过测景使用者的手掌和手指的物理特征来进行识别,高级的产品还可以识别三维图象。
Palmprint contains abundant information, and it can determine a person's identity by using the characteristics of palmprint such as line, point, texture and geometry. Palmprint recognition technology is based on palm geometry recognition. Palm geometry recognition is based on the physical features of the user's palm and finger. Advanced products can also recognize three-dimensional images.
手掌几何学识别使用比较方便。它适用于用户人数较多或者容易接受的场景,准确性非常高。低于l秒的时间内,通过检测使用者独一无二的手掌的大小、形状、表面积等三维特征来确认用户的身份,以确保只有被授权的人员身份,以确保只有授权的人员才能进入特定的区域,从而达到门禁控制的目的。作为射频卡门禁系统的替代品,掌纹门禁系统使用户节省了使用与管理卡的成本,也可以与其他门禁系统结合使用以增加安全性。 与指纹识别系统相比,掌形识别系统具有污物和伤疤不影响测量,手很齐易放入扫描器的正确位置等,使用者很容易接受。
潍坊保安公司加盟
Palm geometry recognition is easier to use. It is suitable for scenarios with large number of users or easy to accept, and the accuracy is very high. In less than 1 second, the user's identity is confirmed by detecting the unique three-dimensional features of the user's palm, such as size, shape and surface area, to ensure that only authorized personnel can enter a specific area, so as to achieve the goal of access control. As an alternative to the RF card access control system, the palmprint access control system saves users the cost of using and managing the card, and can also be used in conjunction with other access control systems to increase security. Compared with the fingerprint recognition system, the palm recognition system has no influence on the measurement of dirt and scar, and the right position of the hand is easy to put into the scanner, and so on. The user can easily accept it.
3.虹膜识别门禁系统
3.Iris recognition access control system
虹膜识别门禁系统就是通过对比虹膜图像特征之间的相似性来确定人们的身份并确定是否开启门锁。虹膜识别技术的过程一般来说包含四个步骤:一是使用特定的摄像器材对人眼部进行拍摄,获取虹膜图像并传输给虹膜识别系统的图像预处理软件。二是定位虹膜,确定内圆、外圆和二次曲线在图像中位置;将图像中的虹膜大小调整到系统设置参数即归一并进行图像增强。三是采取特定的算法从虹膜图像中提取虹膜识别所需的特征点并对其进行编码。四是将特征提取得到的特征编码与数据库中的虹膜图像特征编码逐一匹配,判断是否为相同虹膜,从而达到身份识别的目的。
Iris recognition entrance guard system is to determine people's identity and whether to open the door lock by comparing the similarities between iris image features. Generally speaking, the process of iris recognition technology includes four steps. First, the iris image is captured and transmitted to the iris recognition system by a special camera. The second is to locate the iris, and determine the position of the inner circle, outer circle and conic in the image; adjust the size of the iris in the image to the system setting parameters, that is, normalize and enhance the image. Thirdly, a specific algorithm is adopted to extract the feature points needed for iris recognition from the iris image and encode them. Fourthly, the feature coding obtained from the feature is matched one by one with the iris image feature coding in the database to judge whether the iris is the same or not, so as to achieve the purpose of identity recognition.
虹膜识别门禁系统不需要物理接触,误识率低,可靠性高;但是很难将前端设备小型化,造价很高,很难大范围推广。
Iris recognition entrance guard system does not need physical contact, low error rate, high reliability; but it is difficult to miniaturize the front-end equipment, high cost, it is difficult to promote a wide range.
4.人脸识别门禁系统
4.Face recognition access control system
相对于其他识别技术,人脸识别技术在应用过程中具有独特的优势,例如在图像信息采集的过程中较方便,逐渐成为生物特征识别技术中较为直接和自然的一种,已成为目前人工智能以及模式识别的焦点,也在门禁系统得到广泛的应用。
Compared with other recognition technologies, face recognition technology has unique advantages in the application process, for example, it is more convenient in the process of image information acquisition, and gradually becomes the most direct and natural one of biometrics technology. It has become the focus of artificial intelligence and pattern recognition, and is also widely used in access control system. Extensive application.
人脸识别门禁系统是采集允许访问门禁系统的全部人员的人脸信息并存储在人脸数据库中。当某一个人访问门禁系统时,人脸识别门禁系统会首先通过摄像头来获取人像信息,然后将采集的人像信息输进计算机中,再进行人脸识别。这个过程系统对来访者的人像信息进行预处理,避免表情、光照以及输入设备对结果的影响,将经过预处理的人像进行特征提取,将提取的信息与数据库中的人脸信息进行识别与对比,并记录识别的结果。一旦在数据库中识别出能够对比成功的人脸信息,门禁系统就会接收到计算机的开门指令,通过门禁系统的硬件部分实现允许来访者进入的操作;否则,计算机不会发出开门的指令,门禁系统也不会打开,还会将访问者的人脸信息进行记录,方便以后查询和监管。
Face recognition entrance guard system is to collect and store the face information of all the people who are allowed to access the entrance guard system in the face database. When a person visits the entrance guard system, the face recognition entrance guard system first obtains the portrait information through the camera, then inputs the collected portrait information into the computer, and then carries on the face recognition. The system preprocesses the visitor's image information to avoid the influence of facial expression, illumination and input equipment on the result. It extracts the pre-processed image features, recognizes and compares the extracted information with the face information in the database, and records the recognition results. Once the comparable face information is recognized in the database, the access control system receives the computer's opening instructions, which allow visitors to enter through the hardware part of the access control system. Otherwise, the computer will not issue the opening instructions, the access control system will not open, and the visitor's face will be opened. Information is recorded to facilitate future enquiry and supervision.
由于人脸识别门禁系统能够远距离、快速、无接触式地识别、记录人脸,在有条件的建筑和小区可将门禁系统连接黑名单数据库或公安机关数据库并实时比对,及时发现可疑人员并自动预警,实现智慧安防管理
Because the face recognition entrance guard system can recognize and record the face from a long distance, quickly and contactlessly, it can connect the entrance guard system to the blacklist database or the public security organ database and make real-time comparison in conditional buildings and districts, discover suspicious persons in time and warn them automatically, so as to realize intelligent security management.
生物特征识别技术不仅在安全性,方便性,易管理性等方面都各有特长,较重要的是更符合节能环保的大趋势。从中远期来看,很难有一种生物识别技术能通吃。不同生物识别各有长短,多重生物识别组合使用是未来发展趋势。未来多种生物识别技术将组合运用,守护安全大门。
Biometric recognition technology not only has its own advantages in security, convenience, easy management and other aspects, the most important thing is more in line with the general trend of energy conservation and environmental protection. From a long-term perspective, it is difficult to have a biometric technology to eat. Different biometrics have different lengths, and the use of multiple biometrics is the trend of future development. In the future, various biometrics technologies will be combined to protect the security gateway.